Tilia cordata - little leaf linden/lime

This linden species is native to Europe and parts of Caucasia, with its northern limit reaching Finland, as far north as Vaasa. Of the so-called “valuable” broadleaf species, little leaf linden is the northernmost, having spread into Finland since the last ice age, about 5000 years ago. It was a valuable tree to Stone Age inhabitants, providing valuable fibres for bindings. This usage continued right up to the 1800s. However, removal of the bark in large amounts over the centuries means that the species has largely disappeared from natural sites.

Quercus robur - English or Pendunculate oak

The oak is perhaps the most highly valued of all European trees. The strength of its timber, its size and resistance to decay (for example in ships, furniture and wine barrels) have been contributing factors. Trees can live for over a thousand years and large old oaks are important landmarks. Old oaks are rarely seen in Finland because for hundreds of years oak forests have been destroyed to make way for farming, and for their valuable timber.

Phellodendron amurense - Amur cork tree

The Amur cork tree grows naturally in the Far East, in Korea, China and Russia. It is found with other broadleaf trees and demanding conifers in mixed forests on rich mountain slopes and river valleys.

The broad picturesque habit combined with the attractive bark and rich foliage make this species one of the most beautiful to be found in Finland. It is at its best in autumn when it turns a brilliant pale yellow, which lasts only briefly until leaf fall with the first frosty nights.

Fraxinus pennsylvanica - red ash

The dioecious (i.e. individual trees are either male or female) red ash is native to North America, where it has the greatest range of any of the ash species. It has also been long grown in Finland, having proved hardier and less demanding than the native common ash (F. excelsior). The red ash has an attractive habit and is widely used in streets and parks.

Crataegus douglasii - black hawthorn


Black hawthorn is among the best of the hawthorns hardy in Finland in two ways: it grows highest, to about 10 metres, and competes for first place for autumn colour. At Mustila, the old specimens at the edge of Tammimetsä (Oak Forest) add a glorious blaze of wine-red to the landscape for weeks on end in the autumn, visible from the main highway. In spring the trees are covered for a brief moment in white flowers. And in winter the crown is a mass of twigs and branches in every direction.

Acer platanoides - Norway maple

Norway maple grows mainly in central and eastern Europe, its range extending to the Crimea and Caucasus Mountains but not the British Isles. In Finland it is considered native, arriving after the last Ice Age. On the Finnish map there are numerous place names indicating where maples have grown of old. The northern limit of the species is the line Pori–Tampere–Kuopio–Joensuu; south of this it is the most commonly used deciduous hardwood in both gardens and parks.


Acer saccharum - sugar maple

Sugar maple resembles closely the native Norway maple (A. platanoides) but its native habitat is the east of the North American continent in temperate climates. It is one of Canada’s most valuable broadleaves, a large long-lived tree. In the landscape it is at its best in autumn, showing long-lasting glowing colours from yellow through red and orange shades. The common name comes from the traditional use of its sugar-rich sap in making maple syrup. 

Picea omorika - Serbian spruce

Serbian spruce grows naturally only in a very small area on the borders of Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro, at altitudes between 1000-1500m above sea level. It is an interesting relict species from pre-glacial times, when it had a much wider range in Europe. It can be recognised from a distance by its shape, which is very narrow. Another way of recognising it is the colour of the needles, whose lower surface is shiny silvery, easily visible when the ends of the branches turn gracefully upwards.