Juniperus communis - common juniper

Juniper has the greatest range of any conifer. It grows on all the continents of the Northern Hemisphere from the Arctic tundra to the semi-tropics. This demands great adaptability to varying conditions, and juniper is indeed undemanding as to where it grows: from almost bare rock to nutrient-rich groves.

Juniper’s habit varies: creeper, shrubby or erect, sometimes even tree-like, with other intermediate forms. Particular forms are also selected for production and sale as “varieties”.

Ulmus laevis - Russian, fluttering, or European white elm

The strong-growing Russian elm, despite the common name, is also native to Finland though it is seldom planted and little known nowadays. In the province of Häme it is a typical species of the shores of Lake Vanajavesi, in rich forest soils achieving a diameter of over a metre, given a few centuries. In the past the leathery bark was used where tough bindings were needed, and the wood itself for wooden harness bows.